Babener, Liahna K. “California Babylon,” Clues 1 (2): 77 – 89, Fall 1980.

Balio, Tino. Ed. The American Film Industry. Madison: U. of Wisconsin Press, 1976.

Bargainnier, Earl F. Comic Crime. Bowling Green, OH.: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1987. Significant essay by Frederick Isaac on hardboiled humor and on Bertha Cool by Chouteau/Alderson.

Bauer, Balter and Hunt, “The Detective Film as Myth: The Maltese Falcon and Sam Spade,” American Imago, 35 (3): 275-96. Fall 1978.

Bassett, Mark T. ed. Blues of a Lifetime: The Autobiography of Cornell Woolrich. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State U. Popular P. 1991.

Benstock, Bernard. Ed. Art in Crime Writing: Essays on Detective Fiction. New York: St.Martin’s Press, 1983. A collection that includes overviews of Hammett (James Naremore) and Chandler (Leon Arden) and an essay on Macdonald (Mottram) that focuses on The Underground Man as the “end of the genre.”

Borde, Raymond, and Chaumeton, Etienne. Panorama du Film Noir Americain (Paris:Editions de Minuit, 1955.

Bordwell, David. Narration in Fiction Film. Madison: U. of Wisconsin P., 1985.

Bruccoli, Matthew J. Kenneth Millar / Ross Macdonald: A Descriptive Bibliography. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press,1983.

Bruccoli. Kenneth Millar / Ross Macdonald: A Checklist. Detroit: Gale Research, 1971.

Bruccoli, Ross Macdonald. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984.

Cassill, R. V. “The Killer Inside Me: Fear, Purgation, and the Sophoclean Light,” in Tough Guy Writers of the Thirties, Ed. David Madden. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1968

Cawelti, John G. Adventure, Mystery, Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.

Chandler. Selected Letters of Raymond Chandle. Ed., Frank MacShane. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981

Clarens, Carlos. Crime Movies. New York: Da Capo Press, 1997. Invaluable history of the crime film genre, from the silents through the early 1990s (Natural Born Killers, Die Hard, New Jack City etc.) though marred by a lack of footnotes or bibliography.

Collins, Max Allan, and Traylor, James L. One Lonely Knight: Mickey Spillane’s Mike Hammer. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press,1984.

Collins, Michael. “Expanding the Roman Noir: Ross Macdonald’s Legacy to Mystery/Detective Authors.” South Dakota Review. 24 Spring, 1986. 121-30.

Copjec, Joan. Ed. Shades of Noir. New York: Verso, 1993. Ten essays developing such aspects of the genre as Cornell Woolrich’s contribution, Raymond Chandler’s (Fredric Jameson), women’s roles, spatial relations and homelessness.

Cranny-Francis, Anne. Feminist Fiction: Feminist Uses of Generic Fiction. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990.

Crowther, Bruce. Film Noir: Reflections in a Dark Mirror. New York: Ungar, 1989.

DellaCava, Frances A. and Engel, Madeline H. Female Detective in American Novels,A Bibliography and Analysis of Serialized Female Sleuths. New York: Garland, 1993.

Docherty, Brian. American Crime Fiction: Studies in the Genre. New York: St. Martins Press, 1988. A collection focussed on hard-boiled fiction with many essays taking a semiotic/linguistic approach. Begins with psychological examination of Poe (Rollason), an essay on vision and description in Chandler (Humm), two essays on Hammett (Day, Bentley); Stephen Knight’s excellent piece on Chandler; the psychology of Cain’s characters (Bradbury) the semiotics of Spillane (Evans) and Docherty’s own fine essay on George V. Higgins.

Doherty, Thomas. Pre-Code Hollywood: Sex, Immorality, and Insurrection in American Cinema 1930-34. New York: Columbia U. P., 1999.

Durham, Phillip. Down These Mean Street A Man Must Go: Raymond Chandler’s Knight. Durham: U. of North Carolina P. 1963.

Edenbaum, Robert. “The Poetics of the Private Eye: The Novels of Dashiell Hammett,” in Madden, Ed. Tough Guy Writers of the Thirties. Carbondale, IL.: Southern Illinois University Press, 1968. A key essay.

Ellroy, James. Interviewed by Paul Duncan, “Call Me Dog,” The Third Degree: Crime Writers in Conversation. Harpenden, Great Britain: No Exit Press, 1997.

Emck, Katy, “Feminist Detectives and the Challenges of Hardboiledness,” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature, 21, no. 3: 383 – 398 (1994).

Forter, Gregory. ” Criminal Pleasures, Pleasurable Crime,” Style: 29:3, Fall 1995, 423-40.

Freedman, Carl and Kendrick, Christopher. “Forms of Labor in Dashiell Hammett’s Red Harvest, PMLA 106.2 (1991): 209-21.

Geherin, David. The American Private Eye: The Image in Fiction. New York: Ungar, 1985. An overview, with 4-10 pages on P.I.s from Race Williams through such contemporaries as Spenser, Dave Brandstetter and Jacob Asch. Each section gives an account of the detectives origin in publications, then characterizes the author, his major works and describes the detective, his life and cases.

Goulart, Ron. The Dime Detectives. New York: Mysterious Press, 1988.

Gray, Piers. “On Linearity,” Critical Quarterly 38.3 (1996), 122-33.

Gregory, Sinda. Private Investigations: The Novels of Dashiell Hammett. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1985.

Greiner, Donald. “Robert B. Parker and the Jock of the Mean Streets,” Critique 26, no. 1: 36-44 (fall 1984).

Gruber. Frank. The Pulp Jungle. Los Angeles: Sherbourne Press, 1967.

Guetti, James. “Aggressive Reading: Detective Fiction and Realistic Narrative,” Raritan, 2.1 (Summer, 1982): 128-38.

Hagemann, E.R. A Comprehensive Index to Black Mask, 1920 – 1951. Bowling Green, OH.: Bowling Green State University Popular Press (1982).

Hamilton, Cynthia S. Western and Hard-Boiled Detective Fiction in America: From High Noon to Midnight. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1987.

Harvey, Robert C. The Art of the Comic Book, An Aesthetic History. Jackson: U. Mississippi P., 1996. Excellent overview of the evolution of graphic style in the twentieth century American comic book.

Hoppenstand, Gary, Ed. The Dime Detective Novel. Bowling Green, OH.: Bowling Green State University, 1982. A brief introductory essay, a complete story, and a list of the appearances of each of five important dime detectives between 1882 –1912: Old King Brady, Old Cap Collier, Old Sleuth, Bob Brooks, and Young King Brady.

Hoopes, Roy. Cain, The Biography of James M. Cain. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1982.

Irons, Glenwood. Editor. Feminism in Women’s Detective Fiction. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

Kaplan, Ann E. Women in Film Noir. London: British Film Institute, 1980.

Kenney, William P. “The Dashiell Hammett Tradition and the Modern American Detective Novel,” Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1964.

Klein, Marcus. Easterns, Westerns, and Private Eyes: American Matters, 1870-1900. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.

Kupchik, Christian. “Las desventuras de Raymond Chandler en Hollywood” Quimera: Revista de Literatura. Barcelona: Quimera, 1991. 102, 53-57.

Layman, Richard. Shadow Man: The Life of Dashiell Hammett. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1981.

MacShane, Frank. The Life of Raymond Chandler. New York: Random House, 1976.

Madden, David. Tough Guy Writers of the Thirties. Carbondale, IL.: Southern Illinois University Press, 1968. Pioneering anthnology of articles on Cain, Hammett, Chandler et al, seeing them outside the detective genre as part of a broader social phenomenon.

Malin, Irving. “Focus on The Maltese Falcon: The Metaphysical Falcon,” in Madden, Ed. Tough Guy Novels of the Thirties. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1968. 80-103., 104-09.

Margolies Edward and Fabre, Michel. The Several Lives of Chester Himes. Jackson, Miss.: U. P. of Mississippi, 1997.

Margolies. Which Way Did He Go? The Private Eye in Dashiell Hammett, Raymond Chandler, Chester Himes and Ross Macdonald. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982.

Marling, William. The American Roman Noir. Athens, GE.: U. of Georgia Press, 1995.

Marling. Dashiell Hammett. Boston: Twayne, 1983.

Marling. Raymond Chandler. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1986.

Messent, Peter (ed.) Criminal Proceddings: The Contemporary American Crime Novel London & Chicago: Pluto Press, 1997.

Metress, Christopher. The Critical Response to Dashiell Hammett. Westport, CN.: Greenwood Press, 1994. A valuable collection that contains many importantreviews of and articles on Hammett’s works. Important excerpts from Porter, Layman, Nolan, Cawelti, Thompson, Gregory and Wolfe. Significant essays by Bentley, Freedman/Kendrick, Malin, Marcus and Edenbaum’s seminal essay.

Mottram, Eric. “Ross Macdonald and the Past of a Formula,” Art in Crime Writing: Essays on Detective Fiction, Ed.Bernard Benstock. New York: St. Martin’s, 1983. 95-103.

Muller, Gilbert H. Chester Himes. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1989.

Nevins, Francis. “Cornell Woolrich,” in Mystery & Suspense Writers. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 1998. Vol II, 967-82.

Niebuhr, Gary Warren. A Reader’s Guide to the Private Eye Novel. New York: G. K. Hall & Co., 1993.

Nolan, Tom. Ross Macdonald. New York: Scribner, 1999.

Nolan, William. The Black Mask Boys. New York: William Morrow, 1895. An extremely valuable resource, not only for reprinting eight difficult to find stories by Black Mask authors, but also for the contextualizing biographies and history.

Nolan. Hammett: A Life at the Edge. New York: Congdon and Weed, 1983.

Nye, Russell B. The Unembarrassed Muse: The Popular Arts in America. New York: Dial Press, 1970.

Nyman, Jopi. Men Alone: Masculinity, Individualism, and Hard-Boiled Fiction. Atlanta, GA.: Editions Rodopi B. V. 1997.

Nyman, Jopi. Hard-Boiled Fiction and Dark Romanticism. New York: Peter Lang, 1998.

Oates, Joyce Carol. “Man Under Sentence of Death: The Novels of James M. Cain,” in Madden, Ed. Tough Guy Writers of the Thirties. Carbondale, IL.: Southern Illinois University Press, 1968.

Palmer, R. Barton. Hollywood’s Dark Cinema: The American Film Noir. New York: Twayne, 1994.

Panek, Leroy Lad. Probable Cause: Crime Fiction in America. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Press, 1990. Good historic overview of the development of the genre.

Parrish, James Robert, and Pitts, Michael R. The Great Ganster Pictures (Metuchen, N.J.: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. 1976.

Pearson, Edmund. Dime Novels. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1929.

Pendo. Stephen. Raymond Chandler on Screen: His Novels into Film. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1976.

Porter, Dennis. The Pursuit of Crime. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.

Pronzini, Bill and Adrian, Jack, Eds. Hard-Boiled: An Anthology of American Crime Stories. New York: Oxford U.P. 1995. An unusual collection that extends from the 1920s (Hammett, Burnett) to the 1990s (Ellroy, Block, Gorman), with hard-to-find stories by such writers as Whitfield, Nebel, Paul Cain, Chester Himes, Elmore Leonard, Leigh Brackett and Jim Thompson.

Rabinowitz, Peter J. “Rats Behind the Wainscoting: Politics, Convention and Chandler: The Big Sleep,” in Studies in American Literature, 7:2 (1979): 175-89.Rabinowitz. “‘How Did You Know He Licked His Lips?’: Second-Person Knowledge and First Person Power in The Maltese Falcon,” in James Phelan, editor, Understanding Narrative. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1994. vi, 219-34.

Reddy, Maureen T. Sisters in Crime: Feminism and the Crime Novel. New York: Continuum, 1988.

Reddy, Maureen. “The Female Detective,” Mystery & Suspense Writers, Ed. Robin Winks. New York: Charles Scribner’s Son, 1998. Vol. II, 1047-68.

Ruehlmann, William. Saint with A Gun: The Unlawful American Private Eye (New York:New York University Press, 1974.

Schopen, Bernard A. Ross Macdonald. Boston, Twayne, 1990.

Silver, Alain, and Ward, Elizabeth. Eds. Film Noir: An Encyclopedic Reference to the American Style. Woodstock, NY.: The Overlook Press, 1993. Indispensable reference volume for plots, actors, directors, styles and evolution, with appendices breaking out noir films by years, directors, writers and male/female leads.

Skinner, Robert E. The Hard-Boiled Explicator A Guide to the Study of Dashiell Hammett, Raymond Chandler and Ross Macdonald. London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. 1985

Skinner, Robert E. The New Hard-Boiled Dicks: Heroes for a New Urban Mythology. San Bernardino, CA.: Brownstone Books, 1995. Descriptive overviews ofcontemporary hard-boiled authors and their heroes/heroines” Andrew Bergman, James Lee Burke, Robert Campbell, James Colbert, Michael Collins, JamesCrumley, Sue Grafton, Donald Hamilton, Joseph Hansen, Chester Himes, Elmore Leonard, Sara Paretsky, Robert B. Parker, Richard Stark, Andrew Vachss, Chris Wiltz.

Skinner, Robert E. Two Guns From Harlem: The Detective Fiction of Chester Himes. Bowling Green, OH. Bowling Green State U. Popular P. 1989.

Slotkin, Richard. Regeneration Through Violence. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1973

Smith, Henry Nash. Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950.

Stephens, Michael L. Film Noir, A Comprehensive, Illustrated Reference to Movies, Terms and Persons. Jefferson, NC.: McFarland & Company, Inc., 1995. Very useful brief entries and filmographies of actors/actresses, directors and works, with topical entries such as “serial killers” but without the evaluative sectionfound in Silver/Ward. Short bibliography.

Stowe, William, and Most, Glenn. The Poetics of Murder: Detective Fiction and Literary Theory. New York: Harcourt, 1983. Out of print but a valuable collection, containing Frederic Jameson’s hard-to-find essay on Chandler, Stowe’s on hermeneutics in Doyle and Chandler, and Porter’s on “consciousness of guilt.”

Swanson, Jean. “Sue Grafton,” in Mystery & Suspense Writers. Ed. Robin Winks. New York: Charles Scribner’s Son, 1998. Vol. I, 439-48.

Thompson, George J. “The Problem of Moral Vision in Dashiell Hammett’s Novels,” Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Connecticut — Storrs, 1972.

Traylor, James L. Ed. Hollywood Troubleshooter. W. T. Ballard’s Bill Lennox Stories. Bowling Green, OH.: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1985.

Turner, Frederick Jackson . The Significance of the Frontier in American History (New York: H. Holt and Co., 1921.

Van Dover, J. Kenneth. Murder in the Millions: Erle Stanley Gardner, Mickey Spillane, Ian Fleming. New York: Ungar, 1984.

Van Dover, The Critical Response to Raymond Chandler. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Van Dover. Centurions, Knights and Other Cops: The Police Novels of Joseph Wambaugh. San Bernardino, CA.: Brownstone Books, 1995.

Vierra, Mar A. Sin in Soft Focus: Pre-Code Hollywood. New York: Abrams, 1999. Weibel, Kay. “Mickey Spillane at a Fifties Phenomenon,” Dimensions of Detective Fiction, ed. Larry N. Landrum, Pat Browne, Ray B. Browne. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1976.

Wilt, David E. Hardboiled in Hollywood. Bowling Green, OH.: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1991. Covers McCoy and Cain, as well as Eric Taylor, Dwight V. Babcock and John K. Butler, all of whom had associations with both Black Mask and Hollywood studios.

Wolfe, Peter. Beams Falling: The Art of Dashiell Hammett. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Press, 1980.

Wolfe. Dreamers Who Live Their Dreams: The World of Ross Macdonald’s Novels. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State U. Popular P. 1976.

Wolfe. Something More Than Night: The Case of Raymond Chandler. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Press, 1985.